Central Processor

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    Central Processor

    Central Processor

    Technician’s Guide to the 68HC11 Microcontroller

    NOTE: Throughout this text, references to the HC11 presume the M68HC11E9 version of the chip; thus, the shorter, more general name “HC11” will be used, unless otherwise specified.


    Central Processor


    The processor is the device at the center of the machine. It has the responsibility to execute instructions, manipulate data and perform arithmetic functions. It controls and manages the activities of the entire machine. The human brain is the ultimate processor. It can receive and process instructions, process data (like visual images and sounds) and perform arithmetic calculations. However, the human brain is much, much more than a processor because it has the ability to think and to reason. Computer processors cannot think in the same sense.

    The term Central Processing Unit (CPU) is used to refer to the main processor in a system. The CPU often works in conjunction with a set of processors to complete a whole system. Modern computers contain additional processors, other than the CPU. They contain video processors, input/output processors, memory controllers, interrupt controllers and math co-processors, to name a few. Since these other processors are subordinate to the central processor, they are often called sub-processors. Many peripheral devices, such as harddrives, printers and video projection systems, have dedicated processors embedded into their control circuitry.




    Memory is a term that refers to any component that stores data and programs used by the processor. Memory can have many forms. There are semiconductor memories, magnetic memories, and optical memories. Semiconductor memories include read only memory (ROM) and read/write memory (RAM). Magnetic memories include floppy disk drives, hard disk drives and tape systems. Optical memories include CD-ROM, DVD and optical disks. A thorough presentation of memory relevant to the HC11 will be provided in chapter 8. Section 1.3 will address concepts of memory that are applicable to all computer systems and a necessary foundation for this study of the HC11.




    Input/Output is a term that refers to any subsystem that has the responsibility of receiving data for the processor (input) or sending data out from the processor (output). Input/Output is typically abbreviated as I/O and does not necessarily imply that a particular device has both input and output capability. Typical input devices are keyboards, mice or scanners. Typical output devices are printers and monitors. Typical devices that perform both input and output functions are modems or tape drives. Collectively, all these devices are referred to as I/O devices. The HC11 I/O capability is discussed in detail in chapters 10 through 13.




    The processor communicates with the memory and I/O via busses. On a computer, a bus is a set of two or more conductors that are grouped together to form a parallel information path to and/or from the processor. The bus size, given in bits, is a measure of the number of conductors that can be active simultaneously on the bus. There are three major busses on computer systems: the data bus, the address bus and the control bus. The data bus is responsible for the transfer of data between the processor and memory or the processor and I/O. It is a bidirectional bus, because data can travel to or from the processor and other devices. Typically, a data bus transfers data in byte widths. Thus, a data bus is an 8-bit, 16-bit or 32-bit bus (1 byte, 2 bytes or 4 bytes wide). The number of bits, or data bus width, also directly correlates with the default processing capacity of the processor. Typically, processors and computers are referred to by the size of their data busses. An HC11 is considered an 8-bit processor because it has an 8-bit data bus and has the default processing capability of one byte. Pentium-based personal computers are 32-bit or 64-bit machines. Thus, they can process four or eight bytes simultaneously.


    The address bus is responsible for the transfer of addresses from the processor to memory or to I/O. The address is used to identify specific memory locations or I/O devices. It is a unidirectional or one-way bus, because processors are the only devices that can create an address for memory or I/O. Typically, an address bus transfers addresses over the bus in double byte widths. Thus, an address bus is usually a 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bit bus (2 bytes, 4 bytes or 8 bytes wide). The HC11 uses a 16-bit address bus. The control bus is responsible for the control signals necessary to interface the various devices within a computer system. This bus is not typically structured as a fixed number of conductors, as are the data and address busses. It is more likely to be a collection of all other signals necessary for proper operation of the system. Figure 1.3 illustrates how busses might be implemented between an HC11 and some expanded off-chip memory device. This example uses a 16-bit address bus, an 8-bit data bus and two control signals that would be part of a larger system control bus.

    Figure 1.3 Computer Bus Example


    Self-Test Questions 1.1


    1. What are the three main hardware components of a computer?

    2. What is the function of each of the three hardware components of a computer?

    3. What connects the three hardware components and allows the data, addresses and control signals to move between these components?


    1.2 Elements of Processors

    Processors have the job of processing the data within a computer and controlling the overall operation of the system. The basic block diagram of a processor includes an arithmetic logic unit, processor registers and a control unit, as shown in Figure 1.4.


    Arithmetic Logic Unit


    The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is responsible for mathematical and logical operations. Most processors support addition and subtraction, logical AND, OR and NOT operations and data shifting. All of these operations are performed in an ALU. The ALU receives data from the processor registers and from external memory via the external data bus. It does not store data, but it returns the result of the operations to the registers or to memory. The ALU is interfaced to a block of processor registers and

    Figure 1.4 Processor Block Diagram

    to the control block, as shown in Figure 1.4. The HC11 has an ALU that can perform operations on 8-bit and 16-bit data.

    Processor Registers


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