Effective Learning Method


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    Effective Learning Method
    Learning or learning is a mandatory activity that we do and we give to our children. Because he is the key to success fatherly reach a bright future, preparing the nation with an insight into the generation of high science. Which will eventually be useful for the nation, state, and religion. Seeing such a vital role, then apply the methods of effective and efficient is a must. With the hope of teaching and learning process will run menyenakngkan and not boring. Below are some effective methods of learning, that we may prepare.

    Methods Debate
    Method of debate is one method of learning is very important to improve students’ academic abilities. Teaching materials are selected and arranged into a package the pros and cons.Students are divided into several groups and each group consisted of four people. In the group, students (two men took positions pro and two others in a position counter) did the debate about the assigned topic. Reports of each group concerning the pros and cons of both positions is given to teachers.
    Furthermore, teachers can evaluate each student on mastery of the material that covers both positions and evaluate how effectively students are involved in the debate procedures.
    Basically, that all successful models of cooperative learning as expected, each model must involve teaching materials that allow students to assist and support each other as they learn the material and the working interdependence (interdependence) to complete the task. Social skills needed in an effort to collaborate should be central to the success of completing the task group.These skills can be taught to students and student roles can be specified to facilitate the group process. These roles may vary according to task, for example, the role of recorder (recorder), maker of the conclusions (summarizer), regulator of materials (materials manager), or the facilitator and the teacher’s role could be as monitors the learning process.

    Role Playing Methods
    Method of Role Playing is a way of mastery learning materials through the development of students’ imagination and appreciation. Developing imagination and appreciation of the student with the act it as a character living or inanimate objects.These games are generally carried out more than one person, it depends on what is played. Excess methods Role Playing:
    Involving all students can participate have the opportunity to advance its ability to cooperate.
    1. Students are free to make decisions and express their entirety.
    2. The game is an invention that is easy and can be used in situations and at different times.
    3. Teachers can evaluate students’ understanding of each by observation at the time to play.
    4. The game is a fun learning experience for children.

    Problem Solving Methods (Problem Solving)
    Methods of problem solving (problem solving) is the use of methods in learning activities with the road train students to face various problems be it personal or individual and group problem to be solved alone or jointly.
    Learning orientation is an investigation and discovery which is basically solving the problem.
    The advantages of problem solving methods as follows:
    1. Trains students to design an invention.
    2. Think and act creatively.
    3. Solve the problems faced realistically
    4. Identify and conduct investigations.
    5. Interpret and evaluate the results of observations.
    6. Stimulate the development of students’ progress thinking to solve problems faced by the right.
    7. Can make school education more relevant to life, especially the world of work.
    Weaknesses of the method of problem solving as follows:
    1. Some subjects are very difficult to implement this method. Eg lack of laboratory equipment makes it difficult to see and observe the students and finally able to conclude the event or concept.
    2. Allocation requires a longer time compared with other learning methods.

    Problem Based Learning
    Problem Based Instruction (PBI) focus on life issues that are meaningful to students, the teacher presents a problem, ask questions and facilitating inquiry and dialogue.
    Steps:
    1. The teacher explains the learning objectives. Explain the logistics required. Motivating students to engage in problem solving activities selected.
    2. Teachers help students learn to define and organize tasks related to the problem (set of topics, tasks, schedules, etc..)
    3. Teachers encourage students to collect the appropriate information, carry out experiments to obtain an explanation and problem solving, data collection, hypothesis, problem-solving.
    4. Teachers assist students in planning and preparing the appropriate work such as reports and help them share the duties with his friend.
    5. Teachers help students to reflect or evaluate their investigations and the processes they use.
    Pros:
    1. Students engaged in learning activities so that knowledge is really absorbed well.
    2. Trained to be able to cooperate with other students.
    3. Can be obtained from various sources.
    Disadvantages:
    1. For students who are lazy goal of such methods can not be achieved.
    2. Requires a lot of time and money.
    3. Not all subjects can be applied with this method

    Cooperative Script
    The script is a cooperative learning method where students work in pairs and orally summarize the parts of the material studied.
    Steps:
    1. The teacher divides the students to pair up.
    2. Teachers share the discourse / materials for each student to read and create a summary.
    3. Teachers and students determine who first served as a speaker and who will act as a listener.
    4. The speaker read the summary as complete as possible, by incorporating the main ideas in the summary. While the audience listened to / correct / show the main ideas that are less complete and helpful to remember / memorize the basic ideas by connecting with the previous material or other material.
    5. Exchanging the role, originally as a listener and the speaker exchanged vice versa, and do as above.
    6. Conclusion teachers.
    7. The cover.
    Pros:
    • Train the hearing, precision / accuracy.
    • Each student receives a role.
    • Train reveal mistakes of others with oral.
    Disadvantages:
    • Only used for certain subjects
    • Only do two people (not involving the whole class so that the correction was limited to the two-person).

    Picture and Picture
    Picture and Picture is a learning method that uses images and paired / sorted into a logical order.
    Steps:
    1. Teachers deliver the competencies to be achieved.
    2. Presenting the material as an introduction.
    3. Teachers demonstrate / show images associated with the material.
    4. Master points / call the student in turn to install / sort the pictures into a logical sequence.
    5. The teacher asks the reasons / rationale for the image sequence.
    6. Of the reason / image sequence is to start instilling the concept of teacher / materials in accordance with the competencies to be achieved.
    7. Conclusion / summary.
    Goodness:
    1. Teachers more aware of the capabilities of each student.
    2. Train to think logically and systematically.
    Disadvantages: Eating a lot of time. Many students are passive.

    Numbered Heads Together
    Numbered Heads Together is a method of learning where each student is given a number and then created a group were then randomly dials the number of student teachers.
    Steps:
    1. Students are divided into groups, each student in each group gets a number.
    2. The teacher gives the task and each group working on it.
    3. The group discussed the correct answers and make sure each member of the group can do it.
    4. Teachers call one number to the number of students who are called to report the results of their cooperation.
    5. The response from another friend, then the teacher pointed to another number.
    6. Conclusion.
    Pros:
    • Each student to be ready all.
    • Able to conduct discussions in earnest.
    • Students who are good to teach students who are less intelligent.
    Weaknesses:
    • The possibility that the number called, called again by the teacher.
    • Not all members of the group called by the teacher

    Method of Investigation Group (Group Investigation)
    Group investigation method is often viewed as the most complex and most difficult to be implemented in cooperative learning. This method involves students from planning, both in determining the topic and how to learn through investigation. This method requires the students to have good skills in communicating and in group process skills (group process skills). Teachers who use investigative methods generally divide the class into groups of 5 to 6 students with heterogeneous characteristics. Distribution groups can also be based on friendship or common interests pleasure to a particular topic. The students choose the topic you want to learn, follow in-depth investigation on various subtopics that have been selected, then prepare and present a report to the class as a whole. The description about the steps the group investigation method can be stated as follows:
    a. Selection of topics
    Parasiswa choose various subtopics within a region common problem that is usually described in advance by the teacher. The students then organized into groups that are oriented to the task (task-oriented groups) consisting of 2 to 6 people. The composition of heterogeneous groups in both genders, ethnicity and academic ability.
    b. Cooperation plan
    Parasiswa and teachers plan a variety of special learning procedures, tasks and general objectives that are consistent with a variety of topics and subtopics that have been selected from step a) above.
    c. Implementation
    Parasiswa implement a plan that was formulated in step b).Learning must involve a variety of activities and skills with a wide variety and encourages students to use a variety of sources contained both inside and outside of school. Teachers continuously follow the progress of each group and provide assistance if needed.
    d. Analysis and synthesis
    Parasiswa analyze and synthesize information obtained in step c) and plan to be summarized in an attractive presentation to the class.
    e. Presentation of final results
    All groups presented an interesting presentation of various topics that have been studied in order that all students in each class involved and reach a broad perspective on the topic. Group presentations coordinated by the teacher.
    f. Evaluation
    Teachers and students to evaluate the contribution of each group to work the class as a whole. Evaluation can include each student individually or in groups, or both.

    Jigsaw Method
    Basically, in this model the teacher to share the information that large units into smaller components. Furthermore, teachers divide students into cooperative learning groups consisting of four students so that each member is responsible for mastery of each component / subtopics are assigned with the best teachers.Students from each group responsible for the same subtopic again form a group consisting of consisting of two or three people.
    These students work together to complete the task kooperatifnya in: a) learn and become experts in the subtopic thereof; b) plan how to teach subtopics parts to members of the original group.After that the student is returned to each group as an “expert” in subtopiknya and teach important information in these subtopics to a friend. Experts in another subtopic also act similarly. So that all students are responsible for demonstrating mastery of all the materials assigned by the teacher. Thus, every student in the group must master the topic as a whole.

    Methods Team Games Tournament (TGT)
    TGT cooperative learning model is one type or model of cooperative learning are easy to implement, involving the activities of all students without any distinction of status, involving the participation of students as peer tutors and contains elements of the game and reinforcement.
    Learning activities with games designed in the TGT cooperative learning model allows students to learn to relax in addition to foster responsibility, cooperation, fair competition and the involvement of learning.
    Ada5 major component in the main component in the TGT that is:
    1. Presentation of the class
    At the beginning of the learning of teachers delivering the presentation of material in class, usually done by direct teaching or by lectures, discussions led by teachers. At the time of presentation of this class students should really pay attention and understand the material presented teachers, because it will help students perform better at work and at the game because the game score will determine the score of the group.
    2. Group (team)
    The group usually consists of 4 to 5 students are members of heterogeneous views of academic achievement, gender and race or ethnicity. The function of the group is to further explore the material with friends group and more specifically to prepare group members to work properly and optimally at the time of the game.
    3. Game
    Game consists of questions designed to test students’ knowledge gained from the presentation of classes and learning groups. Most games consisted of simple questions numbered.Students select a numbered card and try to answer the questions that correspond with that number. Students who answered that question correctly will get a score. These scores are later gathered the students for weekly tournaments.
    4. Tournament
    Usually tournament conducted on weekends or on each unit after presenting the class teacher and the group has been working on the worksheet. The first tournament of teachers divide students into multiple table tournaments. The three highest student achievement are grouped in table I, the three students are next on the table II and beyond.
    5. Recognize team (group award)
    The teacher then announces the winning team, each team will receive a gift certificate or if the average score meets the specified criteria. Team earned the nickname “Super Team” if the average score of 45 or more, “Great Team” in an average of 40-45 and “Good Team” when the average 30-40

    Student Teams – Achievement Divisions (STAD) Method
    Students are grouped in heterogeneous and students who are good at explaining other members to understand.
    Steps:
    1. Form a four person group whose members are heterogeneous (mixed according to achievement, gender, ethnicity, etc..).
    2. The teacher presents the lesson.
    3. The teacher gives the task to the group to be done by group members. Members who know explain to other members until all members of the group understand.
    4. The teacher gave a quiz / questions to all students. At the time of answering the quiz should not help each other.
    5. Giving evaluation.
    6. The cover.
    Pros:
    1. All students become better prepared.
    2. Exercising good cooperation with.
    Disadvantages:
    1. The group members all have difficulties.
    2. Differentiating students.

    Examples of Non Model Examples
    Examples of Non Examples are learning method using examples.Examples can be from the case / drawing relevant to the KD.
    Steps:
    1. Teachers prepare drawings in accordance with the learning objectives.
    2. Teachers put a picture on the blackboard or displayed through the OHP.
    3. Teachers provide instruction and opportunity for students to observe / analyze the images.
    4. Through group discussion 2-3 students, the discussion of the analysis of the image is recorded on paper.
    5. Each group was given the opportunity to read the results of their discussion.
    6. Starting from the comments / discussion of students, teachers begin to explain the material according to the objectives to be achieved.
    7. KKesimpulan.
    Goodness:
    1. Students are more critical in analyzing the images.
    2. Students know the application of the material in the form of example images.
    3. Students are given the opportunity to express their opinion.
    Disadvantages:
    1. Not all material can be presented in the form of images.
    2. Take a long time.

    Lesson Study Method
    Lesson Study is a method developed in Japan that the Japanese language called Jugyokenkyuu. The term lesson study itself was created by Makoto Yoshida.
    Lesson Study is a process in developing the professionalism of teachers in Japan by investigating / testing their teaching practices to become more effective.
    The steps are as follows:
    1. A number of teachers working within a group. This cooperation includes:
    a. Planning.
    b. Teaching practice.
    c. Observation.
    d. Reflection / criticism towards learning.
    2. One of the teachers in the group doing the planning stages of making a mature lesson plan comes with its own foundations that support.
    3. Teachers who have made learning plans in (2) then the real classroom teaching. Means the stage accomplished teaching practice.
    4. Other teachers in the group to observe the learning process while matching lesson plans that have been made. Mean observation terlalui stage.
    5. All teachers in the group including teachers who have taught together and then discuss their observations of the learning that has taken place. This stage is a stage of reflection. In this stage also discussed remedial measures for the next lesson.
    6. The results in (5) subsequently implemented in the classroom / learning back to the next and so on (2).
    The excess of lesson study method as follows:
    – Can be applied in every fields ranging arts, languages, to mathematics and sports and at every grade level.
    – Can be executed between / across schools.

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