Introduction to Memory


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    Introduction to Memory

    HC11 Processor

    1.3 Introduction to Memory
    Memory is a term that refers to any component that stores data and programs for the processor. The programs (software), as well as the program data, are stored in the memory during execution and processing. Memory consists of storage locations, where each location can contain one byte of information. A unique address is assigned to each storage location in memory so that it can be individually accessed. The HC11 uses memory that contains a byte of data in each storage location.
    A memory address is an n-bit binary number that the processor uses to select a specific memory location. If the processor wishes to communicate with memory location 7, it produces the 16-bit binary address for this location (%0000 0000 0000 0111) and places
    this address on the address bus. The number of address bits in a system determines the number of unique addresses that can be created by the processor, as shown in  Equation 1.1. The HC11 uses a 16-bit address. Therefore, it can address 216 or 64K unique memory locations. # of unique addresses = 2n Equation 1.1 where n is the number of address bits in the system.

    Figure 1.9 Example of Memory Map

    Although an address can be generated from each combination of binary bits in the address, there may not be physical memory at all locations in the address range. A memory map designates the memory addresses that are connected to physical memory locations and indicates which locations are unused. For example, a system may have a 16-bit address bus, which allows it to address 64K memory locations. However, the system may have only 16K of physical memory connected. In this case, the memory map indicates the address range within the 64K range that will be used for this 16K device. Figure 1.9 illustrates how this memory map would look. The data is the information stored at each memory location. Since all data is just a group of binary bits, it all appears about the same to the processor. It is impossible by simple inspection to know if a value in memory is a number, a special code or a piece of a larger address. The real value of the data is how it is used. The meaning of the data comes from the order in which it appears in the memory, as well as how it is used by the processor. The process of storing data in memory is called a write operation. When a specific memory location is addressed, the data can be written to the data bus by the processor, as shown in Figure 1.10. The processor generates the address $0005 and sends it to the memory device on the address bus. Then the processor places the data $CF on the data bus. The processor tells the memory what type of operation to perform via the control signals. Writing to memory is a destructive process, which means that any data previously in the memory location is overwritten by the new data and the old data is lost. After a write operation, the data will remain in the memory location until it is overwritten by another write operation. Data can also move from the memory location to the processor via a read operation, as shown in Figure 1.11. A read operation causes a copy of the data to be sent to the processor from the memory. The processor initiates a read operation by placing the address ($0007) on the address bus. It then signals the memory to place the data ($CE) from the addressed location on the data bus. The processor waits a specific length of time and then reads the data from the data bus. The signal between the processor and the memory that controls the direction of data movement is usually called read/write. Reading from memory is a nondestructive process, which means that data in the memory location is not affected.

    Figure 1.10 Processor Write Operation

    Figure 1.11 Processor Read Operation

    Self-Test Questions 1.3

    1. What is an address?
    2. How many unique addresses can be generated from a 12-bit address bus? A 20-bit
    address bus?
    3. In which direction does the data move during a read operation?

    1.4 Memory Types

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