Memory Types


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    Mari Kita simak lebih detailnya tentang Memory Types

    Memory Types

    1.3 Introduction to Memory

    Memory Types

    The physical memory locations can be represented by various types of memory devices. Two different types of memory made from semiconductor materials will be described: volatile and nonvolatile. Volatile memory is a memory that retains the data only when the power is applied. If the power is removed, the data stored in the memory locations will be lost. As the name implies, nonvolatile memory is not volatile. A nonvolatile memory retains the data with or without power being applied to the device.

    RAM

    RAM stands for Random Access Memory; however, it is better described as read/write memory. Most memory on modern computers is random access, which means that it can be randomly addressed (the data is accessed in any order the processor chooses). Sequentially accessed memory is used only for special processing and timing applications and will not be described in this text. RAM is volatile, retaining data only when the power is applied. If the power going to RAM is turned off, all data contained in it is lost. When power is reapplied, the content of RAM is undefined, which means the data can be any value. RAM is used for temporary storage of programs while they are being executed, as well as for temporary storage of data while it is being processed. RAM is relatively fast memory when compared to the whole family of various memory devices. RAM is also relatively less expensive, uses less power and is smaller than most memory devices.

    ROM

    ROM stands for Read Only Memory. ROM is used for permanent storage of programs and data. It is a nonvolatile memory; therefore, it always retains its data, whether power is applied or not. Standard ROM must be loaded with the permanent programs and data during the manufacturing process. Other types of ROM have been developed that allow programs and data to be written to them after the manufacturing process. Programmable Read Only Memory or PROM is designed to be programmed in the field, after the manufacturing process. This provides the user the ability to purchase one chip and use it for various purposes dependent upon the field application. PROM can be programmed one time. If a program or data contained in a PROM needs to be modified, the PROM must be discarded and a new one must be programmed.Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, EPROM, is a type of PROM that can be erased by applying an intense ultraviolet light to the memory circuitry. Once it has been erased, it can be reprogrammed using a special programming fixture. Chips that contain EPROM have a small window on the chip package that allows the light to reach the memory circuitry. Once an EPROM is programmed, this window is covered to stop light from entering the device and inadvertently erasing the memory locations. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, EEPROM, can be erased with electrical signals and then reprogrammed. EEPROM is used in various devices that require permanent memory yet need the convenience of electrical erasure. Single locations within an EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed.

    Figure 1.12 Memory Map on the HC11E9

    HC11 Memory

    The HC11E9 contains three types of on-chip memory, RAM, EEPROM and ROM, as shown in Figure 1.12. There are 512 bytes of RAM located in the memory map, from $0000 through $01FF. In addition to the RAM, the HC11 contains 512 bytes of EEPROM and 12K of ROM. The EEPROM is located from $B600 through $B7FF in the memory map, and the ROM is located from $D000 through $FFFF. In addition to this memory, a 64-byte register block is located at $1000 through $103F within the memory map.

    Refer to chapter 8 for a further presentation regarding HC11 memory.

    Self-Test Questions 1.4

    1. What two types of memory devices make up the memory system of a computer?
    2. What type of ROM can be erased by electrical signals?
    3. How much RAM is contained on the HC11E9?

     1.5 Input/Output

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