Outdoor Activities and Equipment Safety

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    Mari Kita simak lebih detailnya tentang Outdoor Activities and Equipment Safety

    Outdoor Activities and Equipment Safety
    A. Equipment


    After learning this, participants are expected to be able to:

    1. Knowing all types of vertical rescue equipment.

    2. Knowing the function of vertical recue equipment.

    3. Using a vertical rescue equipment.

    4. Demonstrate secure yourself in the vertical environment.

    Evacuation equipment type / vertical rescue.

    1. Harness

    Harness serves as a holder / mooring body, or tools used to support safety at work / activity at altitude. For that harness used must meet the following requirements:

    a. Comfortable when in use so that rescuer can work freely.

    b. Equipped with moorage / or body major safety ..

    c. On the waist belt fitted to the hook-loop equipment.

    d. Able to withstand the buffeting, a minimum of 16 KN.


    In general, the harness is distinguished by its shape.

    a. Sit harness.

    • Free style, sit harness that size can be set in accordance with its consumer body.

    • fixe style, sit harness that amount has been determined from the manufacturer, according to the size of these masingg (XS, S, M, XL).

    b. Full body harness.

    Fullbody harness the same function as the harness, but differ in size and shape, fullbody harness is used on the entire body and has a place for the safety / tether which is located in the chest and there is also fullbody whose places of safety / mooring located in the back. Fullbody harnesses used by workers who do the work in the fields of hard / height, but can also be used for high angle rescue technique, whether used by the rescuer or the victim.

    c. Chest harness (Harness Chest).

    Chest chest serves as a safety harness, chest harness is usually used in mechanical ascending system as a liaison Croll (chest ascender). However, many outstanding market skarang chest harness fabrication that can be used as needed. Additionally chest harness can be made by using a modified webbing and is associated with a ribbon knot.

    In addition harness made fabrication, known also improvised harness made of webbing, here are some ways that is often used to make improvised harness.

    2. Carabiner

    Carabiner / hook is a metal locking ring that serves as a liaison between equipment. The shape is oval, delta, or a modified delta, have a per-opener mounted on the elongated.


    a. Gates.

    Gate / door used to enter a strap or sling, made of steel or alloy, equipped with gate openers, screw / lock, and non-screw.

    b. Strength.

    Each carabiner fabrication include the value of strength, and placed on the longitudinal side of the carabiner. The minimum strength of 2000 Kg carabiners.

    c. Of care.

    Any equipment that is made of steel and alloys, treatment is not dropped or banged on a hard surface.

    Recommended for vertical rescue is a screw gate carabiner.

    Screw gate carabiner.

    During use two carabiners to be made with the opposite position is secure, it can be replaced with a screw gate carabiner.Specific design varies greatly depending on manufacturer.

    Safety and use of carabiners.

    • carabiner is designed with longitudinal loading.

    • The weakest of the gate carabiner, carabiner strength will be reduced and will likely cause damage / fracture of the carabiner.

    • Vibration can cause the sleve lock can be opened. Whatever type carabiners used Rescuer, must still be monitored at all times.

    3. Mallion Rapide.

    Mallions also called quiklinks or screwlinks. The size and shape of some sort (oval, delta and Halfmoon), rate strange to 6,000 kg.Mallions manufactured from alloy steel and special materials, suitable for a variety of techniques. Delta mallion beneficially used loads in three directions, such as hangers stretcher.

    4. Descender

    Descender is a tool that is used for vertical and down the field as a lane rope.

    Type descender:

    * Figure of eight

    The shape resembles a figure 8, the size and shape vary, strange rate 3000 kg.

    Weaknesses of current tools in use, using this tool causes torsion on the rope, wear from friction, not dilengkapai locking system, only recommended for vertical field of less than 50 m. Can be used for rope diameter of 8-13 mm, but for rope diameter of 8 mm, recommended using a double rope technique.

    * Grigri.

    Grigri serves as a belay device and descender. Equipped with a handle release to control the speed of belaying and descending.Equipped with a handle so that users can control speed while descending, and lock automatically when the handle is released.As grigri belay device can easily be used, because users can quickly release or pull when needed. In addition this tool can also be used for ascending with an additional combination of ascender. Can be used for rope diameter of 10-11 mm.

    Some examples of the use grigri

    * Autostop

    Autostop serves as desender and is designed for automatic braking, automatic braking system work will work when we release handle. In addition this tool can also be used as a tool belay (belay device) to reduce casualties from a height, or can we also use for ascending with an additional combination of ascender. Can be used for rope diameter of 10-11 mm.Recommended for vertical field along less than 100 m.

    * Simple.

    Construction is approximately the same tool with auto-stop, but not dilengkapai with automatic braking system handles, descending speeds adjusted so the user releases the speed.Can be used for rope diameter of 9-11 mm, with the modification can be used for use in conditions weighed down the rope (tension). Recommended for vertical field of less than 100 m.

    5. Ascender.

    Ascender is a tool that is used to pursue a vertical field / slope and rope used as a pathway.

    This tool gripping a working system on time unencumbered rope, so it can withstand the load, and move when pushed upward unencumbered. Its strength lies in the serrations that hold the grip when in contact with the rope.

    Type ascender:

    a. Ascender handle.

    Ascender type handle as the handle comes equipped with a plastic or rubber to make people feel comfortable when using it.With modifications pulley, ascender of this type can be used to make hauling sets as you pull the victim or make the pull of a direction on the vertical rescue. Can be used for rope diameter of 8-13 mm.

    b. Non ascender handle.

    Function and use the same as the ascender with handles, but the ascender of this type are not equipped with a handle as a handle, ascender of this type commonly used as a chest ascender, rope grabs, as well as self belay. Can be used for rope diameter of 8-13 mm.


    – Do not drop, knock, ascender on a hard object.

    – Perform maintenance, wash with clean water, pat dry and lubricate the parts contained springs, clean from rust.

    – Use in accordance with manufacturer’s recommended strength.

    6. Pulley.

    Pulleys are also commonly called a pulley. This tool is designed for friction menggurangi working toward a replacement strap or rope.

    Several types of pulleys made specifically to work in the field of vertical / height and has a function, among others:

    • Can be bypassed by a rope that has a connection node,

    • Having a hole / holes that can be occupied by two or more belts.

    • Has support equipment that can help facilitate the work (ascender + pulleys).

    It should be noted that the pulleys are used to ensure that conditions are right and not damage the rope.

    Rate strength of more than 1500 kg.


    7. Additional Equipment

    Additional equipment is equipment used to assist / facilitate the activities of Rigging (Path To Vertical Rescue).

    * Rigger Plate

    Rigger plate serves as a connector plate / connector from the anchor point to the track, because in some cases it takes several tracks in one (1) anchor point fix.

    Rigger plate consists of a plate that has some holes, which can be occupied by more than 2 security.

    Figure Rigger Plate.

    * Swivel

    Swivel is additional equipment that functions transform and prevent the occurrence of torsion on the rope.

    8. Rope protector.

    Usefulness to give protection to the rope of friction sharp objects, such as friction angle rope climbing, wall, etc..

    Some types of rope protector is made for use on the environment / different conditions.

    This type of rope protectors:

    * Padding.

    Made of tarpaulin, canvas, mats, thick rubber which is resistant to friction. This type of rope protector which can be modified by using Canvas Fire Hose.

    * Edge Rollers.

    Rope is a protector of artificial fabrication that has been designed to prevent friction between the ropes and corners of fields, walls, etc..

    B. Safety.

    Salvation is all action to be taken to avoid incidents / accidents are fatal, this is the need of each person / rescuer who do the work. The main priorities in the field of vertical relief is rescuer, then the people around and the victim.

    1) Step rescuers to safety.

    * Always practice.

    * Equipment is always well maintained and ready to use.

    * Think logically to the task to be performed.

    * Always full attention and concentration.

    * Teamwork.

    * Clarity of work to be done every personnel.

    Monitor / alert.

    * Monitor to conduct checks to all parts, (such as, system anchors, knots, rope).

    * Watching out the sharp corners., Equipment that has not been locked.

    * Saying stop if you see things – things that harm.

    The appointment of safety officer / safety supervisor.

     Served keselamatn oversee all aspects before, during and after activity.

    Safety officer appointed an experienced person.

    Selection of personnel.

    Selection of personnel is based on:

     Ability.

     Agile, does not have a phobia (altitude sickness)

     Able to appreciate the role each – each.

    Individual equipment.

    Equipment needs to be considered as the minimum safety requirements for vertical rescue.

    A safety helmet.

    2 Safety Glasses.

    3 Gloves.

    4 Shoes.

    5 Clothing.

    6 Harness.

    7 Whitsel / handball.

    Rope Rescue 8.

    9 Self rescue equipment ascending and descending.

    10 first aid box.

    2) Strength equipment.

     The value of strength or meet the standards specified, it can be seen on the device itself or on the instructions issued by the manufacturer.

     Use of the overall load must be below the value of the power of the equipment used.

    Final checks

     Cheking personnel. Every personnel should be made a final check by the supervisor of safety (safety officer) everything that is needed during surgery, personal gear and equipment team.

     Cheking system, checks on the anchor systems, rope, tools, including the belayer.

    3) safety procedures.

    Any personnel diijunkankan to work after the declared area clear of hazards:

     Secure Area.

     The use of protective equipment.

     Determination of the leadership field.

     Installation of safety line.

     Finding and determining the anchor.

     Create and control node.

     Protecting the rope.

     Avoid friction between the rope.

     Storing unused equipment.

     No throwing of equipment.

    4) Operation at night.

    When do help at night, which should be considered:

    1 Using helmet lights on each rescuer.

    2 Setting up the backup lights.

    3 Provide lighting in the work area.


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