Processor Registers


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    Mari Kita simak lebih detailnya tentang Processor Registers

    Processor Registers

    Central Processor 

    Processor Registers

    The processor registers are a set of registers needed to perform the instruction execution. The registers are used to temporarily store data and memory addresses, as well as to contain status and control information. These registers are accessible to the user via instructions. A basic register block configuration is shown in Figure 1.5. Each processor will have a unique design that may not include all the registers described here. Often a processor will contain multiple copies of these registers for versatility and enhanced functionality.

    Accumulators are special registers directly linked to the ALU to assist with the arithmetic operations. The results of arithmetic operations are stored in an accumulator. The size of the accumulators is related to the size of the data bus. If the processoris an 8-bit processor, then it will have 8-bit accumulators. If it is a 16-bit processor, then it will have 16-bit accumulators. Moreover, processors often have the ability to process data of various sizes. For example, an 8-bit processor may also be able to process 16-bit data. If the processor has a 32-bit configuration, it can also process data in 16-bit or even 8-bit words.

    The program counter is a processor register that keeps track of the address of the nextlocation in memory that will be accessed. Every processor must have a register that performs the function of a program counter. The program counter is the same size as the address bus. If the processor has a 16-bit address bus, the program counter is a 16-bit register. Instructions require one or more bytes of memory for their completion; therefore, the program counter must be capable of incrementing through memory as the instructions are executed. Without the program counter, the processor would not be able to determine which instruction to execute. This register is sometimes called the instruction pointer

     Figure 1.5 Basic Processor Registers

     

    The processor has a need to temporarily store and retrieve data from memory during the processing of instructions. This temporary memory area is called the stack. The processor must have a register that contains an address pointer that indicates the next available memory location on the stack. This register is called the stack pointer. The stack pointer is the same size as the address bus. If the processor has a 16-bit address bus, the stack pointer is a 16-bit register. Most general-purpose processors contain registers that are used specifically by the instructions to address memory. These registers have various names, but generally they are called address registers. The use of address registers allows for simpler instructions, because they do not need to be concerned about the address. The address required to complete the instruction is already provided in the address register. Every processor must have a register dedicated to reporting status. The status register contains bits that indicate certain results of the last operation. The most common status bits are sign flags, carry/borrow flags, zero flags and overflow flags. The sign flags indicate the sign of the last data processed. The carry/borrow flags indicate that an arithmetic operation produced a result larger than could fit into the register used or that it had to borrow to complete the operation. The zero flag indicates that result of the last operation was zero, and the overflow flag indicates that a sign overflow occurred (the sign of the last operation is wrong).

     

    Control Unit

    The control unit within the processor is responsible for reading the instruction from memory; it then ensures that the instructions are executed. The control function is driven by the instructions that are decoded by the control unit. The decoded instruction causes a series of steps to be followed during the execution. Figure 1.6 shows the major components of the control unit within a processor.

     

    The memory address register (MAR) is a special address register that is linked to the program counter. The job of the MAR is to contain the address of the current data word that is being addressed.

     

    The memory data register (MDR) is another special register that resides between the data bus and the various processor registers. It provides buffering and control of the movement of data into and out of the processor. The MAR and MDR are not accessible to the user, but are used internally by the processor for address and data bus interface and to assist in the execution of instructions.

     

    The instruction register (IR) is a special register that always contains the opcode for the current instruction. This instruction opcode is read from memory during a fetch  cycle and deposited into this register. The opcode remains in this register until it is overwritten by the opcode for the next instruction.

     Figure 1.6 Components of the Processor Control Block

    Opcodes, operands and instructions are explained in Chapter 2.

     

    NOTE: The instruction register should be called the opcode register, because it contains only the opcode of the instruction. Operands and operand addresses are not processed by the instruction register.

     

    The instruction decoder is the main section of the control block. It has the job of decoding the instruction in the instruction register and controlling the execution of the instruction. It causes each step of the instruction execution to take place. If an address needs to be read from memory, the instruction decoder will cause that to take place. If data needs to be added, it will tell the ALU to perform an addition operation, and so on.

     

    The process of fetching and executing an instruction is covered in chapter 2.

     HC11 Processor

     

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